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Course_6A Quiz 1



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Even though an act of violence that occurs overseas may involve US citizens (e.g., attacks in Kenya, Tanzania, other embassies), the US Federal Government does not officially consider these acts of violence to be 'an act of terrorism against the United States'.
True False
Growing evidence suggests that terrorism and mass violence places victims, bereaved family members, and emergency response personnel _________________ physical, emotional, and psychological consequences
at risk for short-term but reversible
at risk for long-term
at very little risk for long-term
When an act of mass criminal violence occurs (e.g., the mass shootings at Columbine High School in Colorado), one governmental agency is selected to handle all aspects of the investigation and victim support.
True False
Since 1974, SAMHSA’s Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) has provided technical guidance and consultation to State mental health authorities, to help them develop effective mental health recovery programs following
governor-declared disasters.
officially-declared acts of terrorism, but not natural disasters.
presidentially-declared disasters.
The training in this course addresses the immediate and long-term REACTIONS to mass violence, as well as the immediate and long-term MENTAL HEALTH needs of ___________________:
the surviving victims - the injured and non-injured directly involved in the mass violence event
the family and friends of the survivors and of those killed
the responders to the mass casualty disaster scene
All of the above
Only the first and second groups above
Looking at the Glossary of Acronyms, which Agency or Organization is NOT listed there?
Center for Mental Health Services (Federal)
Federal Emergency Management Agency
The Office for Victims of Crime (Federal)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Department of Justice (Federal)
The human response to mass violence or terrorism is essentially the same as response to natural disasters.
True False
Moving down to Table 1 - comparing the attributes and effects of 'mass violence or terrorism' vs. 'natural disasters': We see that natural disasters are more likely to result in well-meaning loved ones urging victims and bereaved to 'move on,' causing them to feel rejected and wrong for continuing to suffer.
True False
On Table 1, which situation is more likely to result in the victims 'losing the illusion of invulnerability', i.e., 'anyone can be in the wrong place at the wrong time'?
mass violence victimization
natural disasters
the same in both
Still looking at the Table 1 contrast between Mass Violence Victims and Natural Disaster Victims .... which group is more likely to be negatively impacted by short-term media interest? _________________
Mass Violence Victims
Natural Disaster Victims
Still on Table 1, which group is more likely to be impacted by disbelief, shock, and denial? _________________
Natural Disaster Victims
Mass Violence Victims
In which disaster circumstance are there HIGHER rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety and traumatic bereavement that can last for a longer period of time? _________________
Mass violence situations (terrorist bombings, bioterrorism, mass shootings, hijackings, hostage situations, etc.)
Natural disasters (hurricanes, floods, tornado, wildfires, volcanic eruption,etc.)
On Table 1: Survivors of natural disasters who are members of cultural, racial, and ethnic groups, as well as single parent families and people with disabilities, and also the elderly on fixed incomes tend to ____________.
inherently suffer less because they have 'less to lose'.
experience greater barriers to recovery.
What is an example of secondary traumatization experienced by victims of mass violence, as cited in Table 1? _________________
Talking about the event with counselors.
Excessive and repeated media exposure.
Moving to discussion of 'Figure 1. The Population Exposure Model' (also called the 'concentric circle model'): We are cautioned that mental health providers who are new to community disasters and trauma must carefully consider _________________ as well as the psychological impact upon individuals.
their personal biases
the community perspective
the political situation
In Figure 1, the Population Exposure Model’s underlying principle is that the individuals who are most personally, physically, and psychologically exposed to trauma and the disaster scene are likely
to become withdrawn, isolated, and difficult to reach.
to be affected the most.
The 'Population Exposure Model' is most effectively used as a conceptual aid to guide us in
designing the levels of Victim Compensation that may be needed.
identifying which groups of individuals may need the most intensive mental health intervention vs. the least.
Moving to 'Traumatic Event and Stressor Characteristics', we are told that not all events and traumatic stressors are equal in their potential for psychological impact (i.e., post-traumatic stress).
True False
Still in 'Traumatic Event and Stressor Characteristics': Some 'Dimensions of Traumatic Exposure' INCREASE the potential for post-traumatic stress. The author identifies _________________ 'Dimensions of Traumatic Exposure' associated with the development of post-traumatic stress syndromes.
The 'Dimensions of Traumatic Exposure' are inherent in mass violence tragedies. What are these 'dimensions'?
Threat to life and limb; learning of exposure to a noxious agent
Exposure to the grotesque
Violent/sudden loss of a loved one; witnessing or learning of violence to a loved one
Severe physical injury; receipt of intentional injury; or causing death or severe injury to another
All of the above.
Contrary to popular assumption, a prolonged recovery effort involving body-handling and delayed death notifications is not related to increased posttraumatic stress in emergency workers.
True False
Unlike natural disasters, mass violence is intentionally perpetrated through human design. Therefore the level of trauma in mass violence is greater because ..... [select the best answer below] _________________
it was entirely unexpected.
betrayal by other human beings must be dealt with.
Moving on to 'Survivor Characteristics': As time passes, the characteristics of the individual survivor _________________
do not appear to have much impact upon psychological outcome.
play an increasingly important role in alleviating or worsening psychological outcome.
Pre-existing attachment disturbances or difficulties with separation anxiety contribute to the likelihood of developing persistent traumatic grief or experiencing complicated bereavement.
True False
Study of reaction to natural disasters has shown that ...
post-traumatic stress reactions should not be interpreted automatically as exacerbations of pre-existing illness.
when housing, medication, and case management services remain stable, most people with mental illness function reasonably well and, at times, heroically, following disasters.
survivors with serious and persistent mental illness have many of the same needs for social and psychological support as the general population.
all of the above
none of the above
Survivors of mass tragedy are rarely able to understand, tolerate, and cope effectively with the aftermath of severe trauma: intrusive thoughts, sleep disturbances, numbness, and anxiety.
True False
Table 2 summarizes .... _________________
survivor characteristics - both the risk factors and the resiliency factors
the screening and assessment checklist
The model of responses to trauma and bereavement
According to information in the 'Survivor Characteristics' section, which answer below is NOT true?
Cultural, racial, or ethnic group affiliation may promote resilience
Cultural beliefs, traditions, and rituals may provide mechanisms to understand the tragedy
Poverty, violence, and family disruption can compound the effects of overwhelming trauma and loss
Being of the female gender is seen as a 'plus' for resilience
Moving to 'Immediate Adult Reactions to Trauma, Victimization, and Sudden Bereavement' .... The range of common survivor reactions include
Physical reactions
Behavioral reactions
Emotional Reactions
Cognitive Reactions
All of the above
Moving down to 'Long Term Responses of Adults' to mass trauma: In general, researchers have found a considerable range (4 to 54 percent) in the proportion of survivors who experience diagnosable mental disorders following disasters. Most experts agree, however, that those who are involved in 'mass violence' situations with many casualties _________________ those who have experienced natural disasters.
will have about the same percentage of diagnosable mental disorders as
will have more diagnosable mental disorders than
will have fewer diagnosable mental disorders than
When 'traumatic bereavement' occurs, post-traumatic processes (such as trauma-based dreams and avoiding memories of the trauma) tend to override mourning - and grieving is initially blocked.
True False
Moving to the 'Model of Human Response to Trauma and Bereavement' .... which statement below is NOT correct?
Survivors and bereaved loved ones go through a repetitive up-and-down emotional and physical process as they work through extreme trauma and unexpected bereavement, which can seem endless and relentless.
The survivor may be able to deal with the 'facts' of the tragedy only by keeping emotions about those facts compartmentalized.
Internal 'monitors' allow the person to take in what he or she can manage of the harsh realities and then to numb or partially disconnect for respite.
Periods of feeling “more normal” are punctuated with trauma-based bolts of fear and anxiety, and upwellings of grief and longing.
This up and down process of coming to terms with the loss and the new realities is typically completed within a year.


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